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CNC Machinery – Working, Advantages Types, Applications

CNC Machinery - Working, Advantages Types, Applications

CNC denotes Computer Numerical Coding. CNC machining is a manufacturing process that involves the utilization of computers to control and manage different parts of a machine.

So what exactly is CNC machinery?

CNC machinery is programmable machinery that autonomously performs CNC machining operations.

Working of CNC Machinery

Modern CNC machinery is equipped with complete automation. All we need are digital files containing instructions on cutting trajectories and tooling.

Step 1- Designing in CAD Software

The 3D blueprint determines the dimensions and properties of the final product.

The CAD design also helps you to get a CNC quote. When you hire professional CNC machining services, we need to upload the CAD file. You can get a competitive CNC quote based on the CAD design.

Step 2- Feeding CAD Model Into CAM Software

The 3D blueprint design in the CAD model needs to be uploaded in the CAM software. The CAM software scans for any error in the model.

CAM now creates a CNC program to engineer the physical part.

Step 3- Determine the Parameters

The final steps include determining the machine parameters- RPMs, speed, voltage, cutting speed, etc.

The configuration will depend on the geometry availability of machinery and tooling.

Step 4-Nesting

CAM software regulates the nesting. 

Nesting is the orientation of parts related to raw material. Nesting ensures maximum utilization of the raw materials.

Step 5- Translation Into M-code and G-code

The machinery understands two codes-

  • G code-geometry code
  • M code-miscellaneous code or machine code

All the relevant information needs to be converted into G-code and M-code.

  • G-code controls the geometric aspects like movement, course, and speed of the machine parts.
  • M-code determines all the parameters that G-code excludes. M-code specifies the details about coolant usage, tool change, program termination, etc.

Advantages of Using CNC Machinery

  • Reduces labor requirement

CNC machinery offers extensive automation. With automation, the dependency and requirement of manual labor decrease.

  • High precision within a short time

The automation reduces the scope of error. It creates precise products within a short time frame.

Types of CNC machinery

CNC machinery can be used to create custom design products.

Based on Function

CNC Drilling Equipment

CNC drilling equipment uses rotating drill bits to create cylindrical holes in the workpiece. The design of the drill bit eliminates waste metal from the workpiece.

Drill bits are available in separate types for specific applications-

  • Spotting drills- can be used for creating pilot holes or shallow holes
  • Peck drills reduce chips on the workpiece
  • Screw machine drills holes without a pilot hole.
  • Checking reverse is utilized for or enlarging holes that were previously produced.

CNC Milling Equipment

Milling uses multipoint cutting tools for shaping a workpiece. Milling CNC equipment is either horizontally oriented or vertically oriented.

CNC-enabled basic mills can produce three-axis movements, whereas advanced models are capable of accommodating additional movements.  

CNC Turning Equipment or CNC Lathes

CNC turning equipment is used to remove material from a rotating workpiece. The design of the turning tool may vary depending on the application. CNC turning equipment is available for facing, threading, undercutting, parting, or grooving the workpiece.

CNC Plasma Cutter

CNC plasma cutter utilizes a plasma torch. The plasma torch can cut through electrically conductive material using an accelerated jet of hot plasma.

CNC Grinders

Utilizes a rotary wheel. The rotary wheel erodes the workpiece by grinding, giving it the desired shape.

Based on Motion Type

Depending on the motion, CNC machines can be classified into two types.

Point-to-point System

The work peace and the machine are placed at a fixed position until the process is finished and the desired product is obtained. Example- drilling machine or boring machine

Contouring System

The machine cuts the workpiece by following a contoured path. Example- CNC lathes.

Based On the Number of Axes

2-axis CNC Machinery

2-axis machinery the tool is allowed to move in two direction – X and Y axis, e.g., lathes

2.5-Axis CNC machinery

In 2.5 Axis CNC machinery, the tool is allowed to move first in the X and Y direction. Only after that, the third axis will start working, e.g., drilling machines.

3-Axis CNC machinery

3 Axis CNC machinery helps to achieve high precision and accurate end products. Allows simultaneous movement in 3-axis X, Y, and Z. 

4-Axis CNC Machinery

With 4 Axis CNC machines, three-direction movement is enabled, and an additional rotation is also allowed.

5 Axis CNC Machinery

With a 5 Axis CNC machine, 3 directional movements are enabled, and two directions of rotations are also allowed.

Based On the Control Loop

Open-loop CNC Machinery

With open-loop CNC machines, only one-way communication occurs between the controller system and the motor. Open-loop CNC machinery utilizes stepper motors.

Closed-loop CNC Machinery

A closed-loop CNC machine works under a feedback system. The feedback system can be used to monitor the output, correct positional errors, velocity, and acceleration. 

Applications of CNC Machinery

Metal removal industries

CNC machines help to eliminate excess metal from raw materials for creating the desired product. CNC machines find application in the following industry-

  • Automobile industry
  • Aerospace industry
  • Jewelry designing industry

Metal fabrication industry

CNC machines can be utilized for several metal fabrication processes, including welding, plasma cutting, shearing, etc.

Examples of CNC machinery application include-

  • To create minute parts of CPU or motherboard
  • To develop components of a gun triggers ammunition chips, etc.

Why Should You Choose Professional CNC Machinery Services?

Get an instant CNC quote

You don’t have to follow or send a streamline of emails to get a quote. Can simply upload the CAD design files. Professional CNC service will have big-data-driven solutions to calculate an accurate CNC quote.

Experienced professional

An excellent professional CNC service employs skilled engineers with extensive experience. An expert engineer can suggest ideal machine parts at a lower cost. 

Quality assurance

Professional CNC services which have passed required certifications and inspections can be trusted with quality assurance.

Offers full-dimensional report

Information about all the parts that include dimension will be provided to ensure the proper functioning of the designed product.